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         Understanding Exposures


                       By Eugene Struthers

Exposure bracketing


To avoid disappointment with your shots, use bracketing. Use this mode to photograph the same image with different exposure settings. Bracketing automatically shoots 3 continuous frames, one of which is correctly exposed while the remaining two are underexposed and overexposed by a given set amount.Auto bracketing settings(3) +- 1/3 EV, +- 2/3 EV, +-1 EVFlash photography cannot be used.After setting the exposure for bracketing. Hold down the continuous shooting button and then turn the command dial to select auto bracketing.

Exposure compensation


This function is used for shots when the photographer is unable to obtain optimum brightness (exposure), an example would be when shots have an extremely high contrast between the subject and the background. Set your mode dial to “P”, “S” or “A” mode then hold down the exposure compensation button and then turn the command dial to set the compensation value. This will be indicated by the symbol of direction either “-” or “+”. Compensation range:- -2 EV to +2 EV (13 steps in 1/3 EV increments).


A point to remember is that the Exposure compensation cannot be used in the “Auto” or “SP” and “M” modes. It will be disabled. To obtain the optimum brightness:-The Exposure Compensation should be adjusted according to the level of brightness or darkness in the photographed image.If the model appears to bright.Try a negative (-) compensation setting.This will make the overall photographed image darker.If the model appears to dark.Try a positive (+) compensation setting.This will make the overall photographed image brighter.A general compensation guide.Backlit portraits +0.6 EV to +1.5 EV.A bright scene (Snow field) with a highly reflective subject:- +0.9 EV. Shots made up of 70% sky:- +0.9 EVSpotlit subjects against a dark background:- -0.6 EV.Low reflectivity such as dark foliage and dense trees:- -0.6 EV.

AE-L button


Use this function when you want to take pictures with the exposure fixed for a particular subject. You may find that if your subject is off centre and has a very dark or bright background. The metering for the whole frame may fail.AE lock:-This determines and fixes the exposure at a target level.


The procedure is as follows:-


Press the “AE-L” button this (sets and locks the exposure). Then press the shutter button down halfway this (sets and fixes the focus).Press the shutter button down fully and this will take the picture. Use the AE lock when you want to take multiple shots at the same exposure setting or when the area of focus is to be different from the exposure metering area.

Manual exposure


First set the Mode dial to “M”.

Manual Mode allows you to set any required shutter speed and aperture f-number setting. Setting the shutter speed if your image is too dark you can turn the dial to a slower shutter speed or choose a larger aperture to allow more light in.


Turn the command dial to select the shutter speed. However; in shots with long exposures, noise (dots) may occur on the image.

If the shutter speed is set to a speed faster than 1/2000 sec, smearing white stripes may appear across the image.

If the shutter speed is set to a speed faster than 1/1000 sec, the image may appear dark.


Setting the aperture


Select the aperture by holding down the exposure compensation button and turn the command dial.


Aperture setting



F2.8 to F8 in 1/3 EV increments. When setting the exposure.  Use the exposure indicator on the LCD screen. If the brightness of the model is outside the camera's brightness metering range, the indicator moves to the (+) end to show that the image will be overexposed or to the (-) end to show that the image will be underexposed.


           Special program modes.

Exposure refers to the light that hits the CCD or the total amount of captured light and determines the brightness of the image. The exposure is determined by the combination of aperture and shutter speed. In AE (automatic exposure), the camera automatically determines the correct exposure, allowing for factors such as the brightness of the subject and the sensitivity setting.

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